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MS ja aivojen imusuonet (Luettu 1974 kertaa)
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MS ja aivojen imusuonet
13.07.2015 - 20:51:36
 
Kaksi tutkimusta, uusi näkökulma:

Suomalaistutkijat löysivät aivoista imusuonia, joita siellä ei oppikirjojen mukaan pitänyt olla


http://www.hs.fi/tiede/a1305963490449
...
Imusuonia löytyi kuin löytyikin aivoja ympäröivästä aivokalvosta. Tutkimusryhmä osoitti, että sieltä käsin imusuonet osallistuvat aivojen kudosnesteen ja aivo-selkäydinnesteen säätelyyn. Löydetyistä imusuonista neste kulkee kaulan imusolmukkeisiin.

Imusuonisto on kehon viemäriverkosto, joka palauttaa kudoksissa olevaa nestettä, valkuaisaineita ja valkosoluja verenkiertoon. Samalla se suodattaa ja tunnistaa kudoksista bakteereja ja viruksia.

Havainto täydentää ymmärrystä monista neurologisista sairauksista, kuten Alzheimerin ja MS-taudista. Niissä aivojen hermosoluja tuhoavat veren aineisosat, jotka eivät normaalisti siirry verenkierrosta aivoihin. Näissä tilanteissa valkuaisaineiden ja solujen liikenne imusuonia pitkin voi olla keskeisen tärkeää.

http://jem.rupress.org/content/212/7/991.abstract

A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules

The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease.

Ja Virginia University:

Scientists Discover A New Link Between The Brain And The Immune System


http://io9.com/scientists-discover-a-new-link-between-the-brain-and-th-171056015...
....
Moreover, neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s have long been linked to changes in immune system function, and autoimmune diseases of the gut, like Crohn’s disease, correlate with psychiatric illness.

One major problem for the field, though, has been the lack of a physical connection between the brain and the body that could help explain the mystery behind these diseases. But last week, scientists at the University of Virginia stumbled across such a bridge: a network of lymphatic vessels that appears to directly link the brain with the immune system.
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Could autism, or PANDAS, result from some alteration to the gut microbiome that impacts the immune system via serotonin, and then spurs some change in the brain? Is the lymphatic system of the brain failing to clear out the proteins that accumulate into toxic plaques and tangles during Alzheimer’s? Or is the immune system malfunctioning during multiple sclerosis, due to its encounters with the brain via these lymphatic vessels? All these speculations become fair game with this newfound appreciation of the brain’s connection to the immune system.
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But no matter exactly how this work is followed up, neuroscience and immunology now have even greater reason to collaborate. These findings “are going to crack open the chasm of the field of neuroimmunology in a wonderful way,” Ingram says. “Immunologists and neuroscientists have been politely ignoring each other for far too long.”

Jos ymmärrän oikein on kaksi mahdollisuutta näiden mukaan: jostain syystä aivo- ja selkäydinneste ei palaudu verenkiertoon, tai bakteerit ja virukset pääsevät aivoihin. Unohda vanha autoimmuuniteoria.  

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Re: Alemtutsumabi
Vastaus #1 - 27.12.2015 - 12:57:38
 
Nature Medicine ja Science nostivat aivojen imusuonten löytämisen yhdeksi tämän vuoden merkittävimmistä tieteellisistä havainnoista. http://jem.rupress.org/content/212/7/991.abstract

Aivojen imusuonten tutkimus sai miljoonarahoituksen

Keskushermostosta löydettyjen imusuonien tutkimus saa Jane ja Aatos Erkon säätiöltä 1,1 miljoonan euron rahoituksen.
Tutkimusta tekevät Helsingin yliopiston, Wihurin tutkimuslaitoksen ja Itä-Suomen yliopiston tutkijat.
Akatemiaprofessori Kari Alitalon, professori Heikki Tanilan, akatemiaprofessori Asla Pitkäsen, professori Jari Koistinahon ja akatemiaprofessori Seppo Ylä-Herttualan tutkimushanke tähtää aivokalvojen imusuonien tutkimiseen neurologisissa sairauksissa, kuten Alzheimerin taudissa, aivovammoissa ja aivoinfarktissa.
http://www.mediuutiset.fi/uutisarkisto/aivojen-imusuonten-tutkimus-sai-miljoonar...
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« Viimeksi muokattu: 27.12.2015 - 14:55:25 Kirjoittaja Juliane85 »  

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Re: MS ja aivojen imusuonet
Vastaus #2 - 27.12.2015 - 15:33:49
 
1 Lääkitys siirtäjänä VPS358.

Mun mielestä enempi tutkimusta kuin lääkitystä...

T: Vesku
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Re: MS ja aivojen imusuonet
Vastaus #3 - 17.01.2016 - 14:26:11
 
Samaa tutkimusta, artikkeli viime kesäkuulta: tällä löydöllä on merkitystä MS:n hoitoon tulevaisuudessa. (Ehkä MS-potilailla on vain putkissa vikaa?)

Missing link found between brain, immune system; major disease implications


http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/06/150601122445.htm

In a stunning discovery that overturns decades of textbook teaching, researchers at the University of Virginia School of Medicine have determined that the brain is directly connected to the immune system by vessels previously thought not to exist. That such vessels could have escaped detection when the lymphatic system has been so thoroughly mapped throughout the body is surprising on its own, but the true significance of the discovery lies in the effects it could have on the study and treatment of neurological diseases ranging from autism to Alzheimer's disease to multiple sclerosis.

"Instead of asking, 'How do we study the immune response of the brain?' 'Why do multiple sclerosis patients have the immune attacks?' now we can approach this mechanistically. Because the brain is like every other tissue connected to the peripheral immune system through meningeal lymphatic vessels," said Jonathan Kipnis, PhD, professor in the UVA Department of Neuroscience and director of UVA's Center for Brain Immunology and Glia (BIG). "It changes entirely the way we perceive the neuro-immune interaction. We always perceived it before as something esoteric that can't be studied. But now we can ask mechanistic questions."

"We believe that for every neurological disease that has an immune component to it, these vessels may play a major role," Kipnis said. "Hard to imagine that these vessels would not be involved in a [neurological] disease with an immune component."

Alzheimer's, Autism, MS and Beyond

The unexpected presence of the lymphatic vessels raises a tremendous number of questions that now need answers, both about the workings of the brain and the diseases that plague it. For example, take Alzheimer's disease. "In Alzheimer's, there are accumulations of big protein chunks in the brain," Kipnis said. "We think they may be accumulating in the brain because they're not being efficiently removed by these vessels." He noted that the vessels look different with age, so the role they play in aging is another avenue to explore. And there's an enormous array of other neurological diseases, from autism to multiple sclerosis, that must be reconsidered in light of the presence of something science insisted did not exist.
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Re: MS ja aivojen imusuonet
Vastaus #4 - 20.12.2016 - 15:52:37
 
Powerful defenders of the brain discovered, with big implications for disease and injury

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/12/161219120113.htm

December 19, 2016

A rare and powerful type of immune cell has been discovered in the meninges around the brain, suggesting the cells may play a critical but previously unappreciated role in battling Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, meningitis and other neurological diseases, in addition to supporting our healthy mental functioning. By harnessing the cells' power, doctors may be able to develop new treatments for neurological diseases, traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injuries -- even migraines.

Further, School of Medicine researchers suspect the cells may be the missing link connecting the brain and the microbiota in our guts, a relationship already shown important in the development of Parkinson's disease.

Unexpected presence

The cells, known as "type 2 innate lymphocytes," previously have been found in the gut, lung and skin -- the body's barriers to disease. Their discovery in the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain, comes as a surprise. They were found as UVA researcher Jonathan Kipnis, PhD, explored the implications of his lab's game-changing discovery last year that the brain and the immune system are directly connected via vessels long thought not to exist.

"This all comes down to immune system and brain interaction," said Kipnis, chairman of UVA's Department of Neuroscience. "The two were believed to be completely not communicating, but now we're slowly, slowly filling in this puzzle. Not only are these [immune] cells present in the areas near the brain, they are integral to its function. When the brain is injured, when the spinal cord is injured, without them, the recovery is much, much worse."

Curiously, the immune cells were found along the vessels discovered by Kipnis' team. "They're right on the lymphatics, which is really weird," noted researcher Sachin Gadani. "You have the lymphatics and they're stacked right on top. They're not inside of them -- they're around them."

Important immune role

The immune cells play several important roles within the body, including guarding against pathogens and triggering allergic reactions. In exploring their role in protecting the brain, the Kipnis team has determined they are vital in the body's response to spinal cord injuries. But it's their role in the gut that makes Kipnis suspect they may be serving as a vital communicator between the brain's immune response and our microbiomes. That could be of great importance, because our intestinal flora is critical for maintaining our health and wellbeing.

"These cells are potentially the mediator between the gut and the brain. They are the main responder to microbiota changes in the gut. They may go from the gut to the brain, or they may just produce something that will impact those cells. But you see them in the gut and now you see them also in the brain," Kipnis said. "We know the brain responds to things happening in the gut. Is it logical that these will be the cells that connect the two? Potentially. We don't know that, but it very well could be."

While much more research needs to be done to understand the role of these cells in the meninges, Gadani noted that it's almost certain that the cells are important in a variety of neurological conditions. "It would be inconceivable they're not playing a role in migraines and certain conditions like that," he said. "The long-term goal of this would be developing drugs for targeting these cells. I think it could be highly efficacious in migraine, multiple sclerosis and possibly other conditions."
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Re: MS ja aivojen imusuonet
Vastaus #5 - 12.05.2017 - 16:26:24
 
Scientists surprised to discover lymphatic 'scavenger' brain cells

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/05/170501112604.htm

May 1, 2017
The brain has its own inbuilt processes for mopping up damaging cellular waste -- and these processes may provide protection from stroke and dementia.

University of Queensland scientists discovered a new type of lymphatic brain "scavenger" cell by studying tropical freshwater zebrafish -- which share many of the same cell types and organs as humans.

Lead researcher Associate Professor Ben Hogan from UQ's Institute for Molecular Bioscience said the fundamental discovery would help scientists understand how the brain forms and functions.

"It is rare to discover a cell type in the brain that we didn't know about previously, and particularly a cell type that we didn't expect to be there," he said.

"The brain is the only organ without a known lymphatic system, so the fact that these cells are lymphatic in nature and surround the brain makes this finding quite a surprise.

"These cells appear to be the zebrafish version of cells described in humans called "mato" or lipid laden cells, which clear fats and lipids from the system but were not known to be lymphatic in nature.

"When wastes such as excess fats leak out of the bloodstream, it is the job of the lymphatic system to clean them out to avoid damaging our organs."

Dr Hogan said the study focused on the presence and development of "scavenger" cells in zebrafish, however there was good reason to believe that equivalent cells surrounded and protected the human brain from a build-up of cellular waste.

"Zebrafish are naturally transparent, which means we can use advanced light microscopes to see directly into the zebrafish brain," Dr Hogan said.

"Examining the zebrafish brain up close allowed us to find these cells and see how they form and function in detail.

"Normally, lymphatic endothelial cells will group together to form lymphatic vessels to carry fluid, but impressively, in the adult zebrafish brain these cells exist individually, independent of vessels and collect waste that enter the brain from the bloodstream.

"Our focus now is to investigate how these cells function in humans and see if we can control them with existing drugs to promote brain health, and improve our understanding of neurological diseases such as stroke and dementia."

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Vähän aikaa sitten ei edes tiedetty, etä aivoissa on imusuonia. Vaikka tämä tutkimus on tehty kaloilla, en ihmettelisi jos jotain uutta läydettäisiin ihmisten aivoista. Tiede ei edisty, jos haukkuu aina samaa puuta eikä kyseenalaista minkä takia tekee näin.
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Re: MS ja aivojen imusuonet
Vastaus #6 - 11.11.2017 - 16:03:56
 
Dementia treatment research: Exit through the lymphatic system

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171110084307.htm

November 10, 2017
Our brain swims. It is fully immersed in an aqueous liquid known as cerebrospinal fluid. Every day, the human body produces about half a litre of new cerebrospinal fluid in the cerebral ventricles; this liquid originates from the blood. This same quantity then has to exit the cranial cavity again every day. Researchers in the group led by Michael Detmar, Professor of Pharmacogenomics, have now published a study showing that in mice, the cerebrospinal fluid exits the cranial cavity through the lymph vessels. The ETH Zurich researchers have thus identified another central role played by the lymphatic system, and refuted a decades-old dogma. The scientists have published their findings in the latest issue of the scientific journal Nature Communications.

Past research has inadequately explained how cerebrospinal fluid exits the cranial cavity. Scientists knew that two paths were available -- blood vessels (veins) and lymphatic vessels, but for a long time, and due due to insufficient research tools, they had assumed that drainage through the veins was by far the predominant pathway.

Rewriting the anatomy textbooks

The researchers led by Steven Proulx, Senior Scientist in Detmar's group, have now been able to refute this assumption. They injected tiny fluorescent dye molecules into the ventricles (cavities) of the brain in mice and observed how these molecules exited the cranial cavity. They used a sensitive non-invasive imaging technique to examine the blood vessels in the periphery of the animals' bodies, as well as the lymphatic and blood vessels directly draining the skull. It turned out that the dye molecules appeared after just a few minutes in the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes outside the brain. The researchers were unable to find any molecules in blood vessels so quickly after the injection.

They were also able to determine the exact path of the dye molecules and thus the cerebrospinal fluid: it leaves the skull along cranial nerve sheaths -- in particular around the olfactory and optic nerves. "Once in tissue outside the brain, it is removed by the lymphatic vessels," explains Qiaoli Ma, a doctoral student in Detmar's group and lead author of the study.

The scientists are not entirely able to rule out whether a small portion of the cerebrospinal fluid also leaves the brain as previously assumed -- through the veins. However, based on their research findings, they are convinced that the lion's share travels through the lymphatic system, and that the anatomy textbooks will have to be rewritten.

Irrigation system for the brain

Scientists assume that the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid has a purifying function. "The immune system eliminates toxins elsewhere in the body, but the brain is considered to be largely disconnected from this system. Only a few immune cells have access under normal conditions," explains Proulx. "The cerebrospinal fluid steps into the breach here. By constantly circulating, it flushes the brain and removes unwanted substances."

This flushing function could offer a starting point for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Alzheimer's is caused by misfolded proteins that accumulate in the brain. Proulx and his colleagues speculate that these misfolded proteins could be eliminated by, for example, drugs that induce lymphatic flow. Similarly, studies could be undertaken to examine whether it is possible to manage inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, through influence of the lymphatic flow.

Slower turnover in old age

The scientists also showed that much less cerebrospinal fluid flows out of the brain in older mice than in younger ones, presumably because less fluid is produced in old age. Since Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia occur in old age, the researchers think it will be interesting to examine whether stimulation of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid could slow down the progression of dementia. This is the question the ETH scientists would like to explore next in a mouse model.

Detmar's group has already shown that other diseases outside the brain can be treated by stimulation of the lymphatic flow. In the case of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, the researchers succeeded in relieving symptoms through stimulation of the lymphatic flow.

Greater attention in research

The researchers say that studies on cerebrospinal outflow in humans may be conceivable in the future. The fluorescent marker molecule does not trigger an immune reaction and is efficiently eliminated by the body. Before the molecule can be used in humans, the scientists must first apply for the necessary approval.

"Research on the lymphatic system did not receive the attention it deserved until recently. Some in the scientific world have even ignored the lymphatic system altogether," says Proulx. Now that the ETH scientists have succeeded in demonstrating another important function of the lymphatic system, they hope that it will attract greater attention in scientific research.

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Tulevaisuus tulee olemaan mielenkiintoista, koska lääkefirmat ovat vuosikymmeniä yrittäneet todistaa, että MS on autoimmuunisairaus. Ilmeisesti EAE hiirillä on autoimmuunisairaus, mutta siitä vastaako se ihmisten MS:ää ei ole aukottomasti todistettu. Prof Zamboni on oikeilla jäljillä, jos MS onkin nesteenkiertohäiriö aivoissa..
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