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Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta (Luettu 11584 kertaa)
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Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
23.04.2016 - 17:46:47
 
Transfer of gut bacteria affects brain function, nerve fiber insulation

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160420104209.htm

Specific combinations of gut bacteria produce substances that affect myelin content and cause social avoidance behaviors in mice, according to a study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published today in the medical journal eLife. This research suggests that targeting intestinal bacteria, or their metabolites, could be one way to treat debilitating psychiatric disorders and demyelinating diseases, like multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by damage to myelin, the insulating sheath around the axons of nerve cells that allows for faster electrical impulse conduction. Myelination is critical for everyday brain function. Damaged myelin results in altered synaptic transmission and clinical symptoms. Previous research from the Center of Excellence for Myelin Repair at The Friedman Brain Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine reported a thinning of myelin and a reduction of myelinated fibers in preclinical models of depression, thereby providing a biological insight for the high rate of depression in MS patients.

This current study led by Patrizia Casaccia, MD, PhD, Professor of Neuroscience, Genetics and Genomics, and Neurology, and Chief of the Center of Excellence for Myelin Repair, and post-doctoral fellow Mar Gacias, PhD, identifies bacteria-derived gut metabolites that can affect myelin content in the brains of mice and induce depression-like symptoms.

Researchers transferred fecal bacteria from the gut of depressed mice to genetically distinct mice exhibiting non-depressed behavior. The study showed that the transfer of microbiota was sufficient to induce social withdrawal behaviors and change the expression of myelin genes and myelin content in the brains of the recipient mice.

"Our findings will help in the understanding of microbiota in modulating multiple sclerosis," says Dr. Casaccia. "The study provides a proof of principle that gut metabolites have the ability to affect myelin content irrespective of the genetic makeup of mice. We are hopeful these metabolites can be targeted for potential future therapies."

In an effort to define the mechanism of gut-brain communication, researchers identified bacterial communities associated with increased levels of cresol, a substance that has the ability to pass the blood-brain barrier. When the precursors of myelin-forming cells were cultured in a dish and exposed to cresol, they lost their ability to form myelin, thereby suggesting that a gut-derived metabolite impacted myelin formation in the brain.

Further study is needed to translate these findings to humans and to identify bacterial populations with the potential to boost myelin production.
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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #1 - 23.04.2016 - 18:19:12
 
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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #2 - 01.05.2016 - 15:59:10
 
Lifestyle has a strong impact on intestinal bacteria, which has a strong impact on health

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160428151853.htm

April 28, 2016
Everything you eat or drink affects your intestinal bacteria, and is likely to have an impact on your health. That is the finding of a large-scale study led by RUG/UMCG geneticist Cisca Wijmenga into the effect of food and medicine on the bacterial diversity in the human gut, which is published this Friday in the research journal Science.

In this study researchers collected stool samples from more than 1100 people taking part in the LifeLines programme, which is monitoring the health of 165,000 residents of the Northern Netherlands. The samples were used to analyze the DNA of the bacteria and other organisms that live in the gut. In addition to stools, the study collected information on the participants' diet, medicine-use and health.

This study is unique in that it focused on a group of normal people whereas previous research was frequently focused on patients with a specific illness. Further, the study covered an exceptionally large group of people and studied their gut DNA in detail. "Normally researchers only investigate one particular region of DNA in which different groups of bacteria can be distinguished," Wijmenga explains. "We have mapped all the bacterial DNA to gain much more detailed information about bacteria types."

Coffee and wine

This DNA analysis made it possible to examine which factors impact the diversity of the microbiome (the intestinal bacterial community unique to each of us). And that appears to be many. Wijmenga says, "You see, for example, the effect of diet in the gut." People who regularly consume yogurt or buttermilk have a greater diversity of gut bacteria. Coffee and wine can increase the diversity as well, while whole milk or a high-calorie diet can decrease it.

"In total we found 60 dietary factors that influence the diversity. What these mean exactly is still hard to say," explains UMCG researcher Alexandra Zhernakova, the first author of the Science article. "But there is a good correlation between diversity and health: greater diversity is better."

Beyond diet, at least 19 different kinds of medicine -- some of which are widely used -have an impact on microbiome diversity. An earlier study by Groningen researchers has shown that antacids decrease this diversity, while antibiotics and the diabetes drug metformin also have an effect. These are important findings Wijmenga stresses, "Disease often occurs as the result of many factors. Most of these factors, like your genes or your age, are not things you can change. But you can change the diversity of your microbiome through adapting your diet or medication. When we understand how this works, it will open up new possibilities."

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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #3 - 01.05.2016 - 16:05:54
 
The gut microbiomes of infants have an impact on autoimmunity

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/04/160429095038.htm

   April 29, 2016
   Aalto University

Exposure to pathogens early in life is beneficial to the education and development of the human immune system.

Over the past few decades, the healthcare community has observed an intriguing phenomenon: diseases related to the immune system -- type 1 diabetes, and other autoimmune diseases, allergies, and the like -- have taken hold in countries that have thriving, modern economies, while barely making a mark in the developing world. One of the best-supported theories to explain this peculiar public health pattern has been dubbed the hygiene hypothesis. The theory is based on the premise that exposure to pathogens early in life is actually beneficial to the education and development of the human immune system.

"Exposure to bacteria may play a pivotal role in the immune system, and that we might be able to understand what that role is by studying the human microbiome," says Aleksandar Kostic, a postdoctoral fellow in the lab of Ramnik Xavier at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard.

The work is the product of an extensive collaboration involving researchers at Aalto University, Broad Institute, University of Helsinki, the Novartis Institute of Biomedical Research, and other organizations across the globe working together as part of the DIABIMMUNE Study Group. By looking at the gut microbiomes of infants from three different countries, the team uncovered evidence that not only supports the hygiene hypothesis, but also points to interactions among bacterial species that may account, at least in part, for the spike in immune disorders seen in western societies.

Silent microbiomes

The DIABIMMUNE Study Group recruited and began collecting monthly stool samples from infants in each of the three countries: Finland, Estonia and Russian Karelia. Along with the samples, from which they would identify and quantify the bacteria that made up the infants' gut microbiomes, they also collected lab tests and questionnaires about such topics as breastfeeding, diet, allergies, infections, and family history. They evaluated all of this data, which was collected from birth to age three from over 200 infants, to see whether connections might exist between disease incidence and what they found in the microbiome.

By characterizing the microbial content of the stool samples, the team found a sharp distinction between the microbiomes of Finnish and Estonian infants and their Russian Karelian counterparts: the gut microbiomes of the Finnish and Estonian infants were dominated by Bacteroides species, while Russian Karelian infants had an overrepresentation of Bifidobacterium early in life and an overall greater variability in their microbiomes over the course of the three years that samples were collected.

"We can only speculate why this difference in bacterial populations exists; what we could show was what implications that difference in populations might have," says Tommi Vatanen, a Doctoral candidate at the Aalto University and Broad who was a co-first author of the Cell study.

LPS has been well-known for its ability to trigger the immune system that LPS from the bacteria E. coli is commonly used to stimulate immune cells in laboratory experiments. But, it turns out, not all LPS are created equal.

When the researchers looked at LPS signaling in the Russian Karelian microbiome, they saw a familiar pattern: E. coli LPS led the charge, likely performing its usual role triggering the immune response. However, when the researchers looked at LPS signaling in the Finnish and Estonian microbiomes, they found that the LPS from the Bacteroides species ruled the roost. What's more, they discovered that the particular form of LPS found in Bacteroides fails to activate the immune system and even stifles the immune-activating LPS from the E. coli and other bacteria living in those communities.

"We believe that E. coli, which lives in the infant gut in all three countries, might be one of the immune educating bacteria responsible for training the immune system early in life. But, we found that if you mix Bacteroides with E. coli it can actually inhibit the immune-activating properties of E. coli, and we suspect this might have consequences on the development of the immune system," Vatanen explains.

"In the Finnish and Estonian infants, where Bacteroides dominates, the gut microbiome is immunologically very silent," Kostic adds, and continues, "We believe that, later on, this makes them more prone to strong inflammatory stimuli."


The researchers suspect that the LPS immune activation by E. coli seen in the Russian Karelian infants is reflective of the relationship humans developed with microbiota over the course of human evolution. The prevalence and dominance of Bacteroides, in contrast, is a more recent phenomenon related in some way to improved sanitation and standard of living.

The researchers say that they would next like to investigate how and why Bacteroides has come to dominate in the infant gut in these westernized countries. They also plan to expand their studies to include other geographic regions and hope to uncover additional mechanisms that help explain the connection between the microbiome and immune-related disease.
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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #4 - 01.05.2016 - 16:34:40
 
Microbes can play games with the mind

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/microbes-can-play-games-mind

The 22 men took the same pill for four weeks. When interviewed, they said they felt less daily stress and their memories were sharper. The brain benefits were subtle, but the results, reported at last year’s annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, got attention. That’s because the pills were not a precise chemical formula synthesized by the pharmaceutical industry.

The capsules were brimming with bacteria.
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Microbial meddling has turned anxious mice bold and shy mice social. Rats inoculated with bacteria from depressed people develop signs of depression themselves. And small studies of people suggest that eating specific kinds of bacteria may change brain activity and ease anxiety. Because gut bacteria can make the very chemicals that brain cells use to communicate, the idea makes a certain amount of sense.  
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Signals between the gut and the brain may zip along the vagus nerve, a multilane highway that connects the two (SN: 11/28/15, p. 18). Although scientists don’t understand the details of how messages move along the vagus nerve, they do know that this highway is important. Snip the nerve in mice and the bacteria no longer have an effect on behavior, a 2011 study found. And when the gut-to-brain messages change, problems can arise.
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If it turns out that bacteria can influence our brains and behaviors, even if just in subtle ways, it doesn’t mean we are passive vessels at the mercy of our gut residents. Our behavior can influence the microbiome right back.

“We usually give up our power pretty quickly in this conversation,” Tillisch says. “We say, ‘Oh, we’re at the mercy of the bacteria that we got from our mothers when we were born and the antibiotics we got at the pediatrician’s office.’ ” But our microbes aren’t our destiny, she says. “We can mess with them too.”

One of the easiest ways to do so is through food: eating probiotics, such as yogurt or kefir, that contain bacteria and choosing a diet packed with “prebiotic” foods, such as fiber and garlic, onion and asparagus. Prebiotics nourish what are thought to be beneficial microbes, offering a simple way to cultivate the microbiome, and in turn, health.
“Prebiotic” foods, such as asparagus and garlic, may help cultivate beneficial bacteria in the gut.

That a good diet is a gateway to good health is not a new idea, Cryan says. Take the old adage: “Let food be thy medicine and let medicine be thy food.” He suspects that it’s our microbiome that makes this advice work.

Combating stress may be another way to change the microbiome, Tillisch and others suspect. Mouse studies have shown that stress, particularly early in life, can change microbial communities, and not in a good way.

She and her colleagues are testing a relaxation technique called mindfulness-based stress reduction to influence the microbiome. In people with gut pain and discomfort, the meditation-based practice reduced symptoms and changed their brains in clinically interesting ways, according to unpublished work. The researchers suspect that the microbiome was also altered by the meditation. They are testing that hypothesis now.
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Suolistobakteereista aivoihin vagus-hermon kautta. Mielenkiintoista. Vagus-hermo kulkee atlaksen kautta ja jos atlas on väärässä asennossa (niin kuin itselläni), se puristaa vagus-hermoa ja signaalit heikkenevät molempiin suuntiin. Samallahan atlas sitten puristaa myös aivoista tulevia laskimoita..
Toisaalta Austraaliassa on ulosteensiirrolla parannettu ainakin yksi MS-potilas. Todennäköisesti joillakin potilailla oireet selittyvät juuri suolistobakteereista, tai pikemminkin hyvien bakteereiden puutteesta. Ja siksi ruokavalion muutos terveellisempään suuntaan on auttanut.

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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #5 - 06.07.2016 - 22:57:23
 
Chronic fatigue syndrome is in your gut, not your head

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/06/160627160939.htm

June 27, 2016
Physicians have been mystified by chronic fatigue syndrome, a condition where normal exertion leads to debilitating fatigue that isn't alleviated by rest. There are no known triggers, and diagnosis requires lengthy tests administered by an expert.

Now, for the first time, Cornell University researchers report they have identified biological markers of the disease in gut bacteria and inflammatory microbial agents in the blood.

In a study published June 23 in the journal Microbiome, the team describes how they correctly diagnosed myalgic encephalomyeletis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) in 83 percent of patients through stool samples and blood work, offering a noninvasive diagnosis and a step toward understanding the cause of the disease.

"Our work demonstrates that the gut bacterial microbiome in chronic fatigue syndrome patients isn't normal, perhaps leading to gastrointestinal and inflammatory symptoms in victims of the disease," said Maureen Hanson, the Liberty Hyde Bailey Professor in the Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Cornell and the paper's senior author. "Furthermore, our detection of a biological abnormality provides further evidence against the ridiculous concept that the disease is psychological in origin."

"In the future, we could see this technique as a complement to other noninvasive diagnoses, but if we have a better idea of what is going on with these gut microbes and patients, maybe clinicians could consider changing diets, using prebiotics such as dietary fibers or probiotics to help treat the disease," said Ludovic Giloteaux, a postdoctoral researcher and first author of the study.

In the study, Ithaca campus researchers collaborated with Dr. Susan Levine, an ME/CFS specialist in New York City, who recruited 48 people diagnosed with ME/CFS and 39 healthy controls to provide stool and blood samples.

The researchers sequenced regions of microbial DNA from the stool samples to identify different types of bacteria. Overall, the diversity of types of bacteria was greatly reduced and there were fewer bacterial species known to be anti-inflammatory in ME/CFS patients compared with healthy people, an observation also seen in people with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

At the same time, the researchers discovered specific markers of inflammation in the blood, likely due to a leaky gut from intestinal problems that allow bacteria to enter the blood, Giloteaux said.

Bacteria in the blood will trigger an immune response, which could worsen symptoms.

The researchers have no evidence to distinguish whether the altered gut microbiome is a cause or a whether it is a consequence of disease, Giloteaux added.

In the future, the research team will look for evidence of viruses and fungi in the gut, to see whether one of these or an association of these along with bacteria may be causing or contributing to the illness.
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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #6 - 06.07.2016 - 23:02:32
 
Gut-brain connection moves into MS territory

http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2016/05/gut-bacteria-link-and-multiple-scl...

A team of investigators at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women’s Hospital (BWH) has found evidence that suggests that bacteria living in the gut may remotely influence the activity of cells in the brain that are involved in controlling inflammation and neurodegeneration.

“For the first time, we’ve been able to identify that food has some sort of remote control over central nervous system inflammation,” said Francisco Quintana, an investigator in the Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases at BWH and corresponding author on the study. “What we eat influences the ability of bacteria in our gut to produce small molecules, some of which are capable of traveling all the way to the brain. This opens up an area that’s largely been unknown until now: how the gut controls brain inflammation.”

Using pre-clinical models for multiple sclerosis (MS) and samples from MS patients, the team found evidence that changes in diet and gut flora may influence astrocytes in the brain, and, consequently, neurodegeneration, pointing to potential therapeutic targets. The results of their study will be published this week in Nature Medicine.
Previous investigations have suggested a connection between the gut microbiome and brain inflammation, but how the two are linked and how diet and microbial products influence their connection has remained largely unknown. To explore this, Quintana and colleagues performed genome-wide transcriptional analyses on astrocytes — star-shaped cells that reside in the brain and spinal cord — in a mouse model of MS, identifying a molecular pathway involved in inflammation. They found that molecules derived from dietary tryptophan (an amino acid famously found in turkey and other foods) act on this pathway, and that when more of these molecules are present, astrocytes are able to limit brain inflammation. In blood samples from MS patients, the team found decreased levels of the tryptophan-derived molecules.

“Deficits in the gut flora, deficits in the diet or deficits in the ability to uptake these products from the gut flora or transport them from the gut — any of these may lead to deficits that contribute to disease progression,” said Quintana.

The research team plans to investigate this pathway and the role of diet in future studies to determine if the new findings can be translated into targets for therapeutic intervention and biomarkers for diagnosing and detecting the advancement of disease.
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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #7 - 06.07.2016 - 23:09:45
 
Connections between gut microbiota and the brain

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/05/160529174445.htm

May 29, 2016
Intestinal bacteria that can boost bravery or trigger multiple sclerosis: An increasing body of research results confirms the importance of the "gut-brain axis" for neurology and indicates that the triggers for a number of neurological diseases may be located in the digestive tract. "The gut microbiome can influence the central nervous system, the development of nerve cells and the immune system. A better understanding of its effect could revolutionize our therapy options," noted Dr Patricia Lepage from the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique in Jouy-en-Josas, France, at the Second Congress of the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) in Copenhagen.

Gut microbiota influences behaviour

The gut microbiome is the aggregate of human gut microorganisms with all its bacteria, archaea, viruses and fungi. For a long time, it seemed far-fetched to think that the microbiome could also be responsible for processes outside the digestive tract. Yet the scientific community keeps uncovering further amazing details. Recent studies on laboratory animals which grow up without any microorganisms (germ-free) show for example that microorganisms in the gut are even capable of influencing behaviour. Dr Lepage: "Intestinal microbes can verifiably produce neuromediators that have an effect on the brain. Germ free mice showed less anxiety than their conspecifics whose gut was populated with commensal microbiota. However, there is only scant evidence thus far on how this process works in the human brain."

It has been proven in the meantime that the gut and the brain communicate with each other via several routes including the vagus nerve, the immune system, the enteric nervous system or by way of microbial metabolic processes. For instance, intestinal bacteria convert carbohydrates into short chain fatty acids, e.g. in butyric acid. This strengthens the connections between the cells and reinforces the blood-brain barrier, which serves as a cellular wall to protect the brain from infections and inflammations.

Gut microbiome regulates brain processes

For the neuroscientist Prof John F. Cryan (APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Ireland), there is no question that the gut microbiome regulates fundamental brain processes important for the development of neurological diseases: "We studied the brains of germ free mice. In one region, the prefrontal cortex, we found increased myelination compared with animals kept under normal conditions. This may have direct implications for myelin-related disorders. Microbiome-dependent processes have also been shown to include adult hippocampal neurogenesis and microglia activation, i.e. the activation of brain and marrow cells similar to immune cells."

Experimental models on the origin of autoimmunity suggest that the gut microbiome plays an important role in this context, too. This insight opens up a new approach for finding the cause of multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is an autoimmune disease that results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Dr Gurumoorthy Krishnamoorthy from the Max Plank Institute for Neurobiology in Martinsried, Germany: "Apparently, the bacteria that can trigger multiple sclerosis are not disease-causing bacteria but rather useful bacteria needed for digestion." A study with genetically modified mice showed that animals featuring normal intestinal microbiota and subject to no external influences developed inflammation in the brain. By contrast, mice kept in a germ-free environment remained healthy. As Dr Krishnamoorthy explained, the immune system of the mice with normal intestinal microbiota is activated in two phases: First, T-cells become active and multiply in the lymphatic vessels of the intestinal tract. Together with surface proteins in the myelin sheath, they then stimulate B-cells to form disease-causing antibodies. Dr Krishnamoorthy: "Both trigger inflammatory reactions in the brain, which destroy the myelin sheath in phases -- very similar to the way MS unfolds in human beings." This process suggests that it is not disorders in the nervous system but rather a change in the immune system that leads to MS. Researchers assume that gut microbiota in human beings can likewise cause the immune system to overreact to the myelin sheath if a corresponding genetic predisposition exists. It is still unclear, however, which bacteria are involved in the development of MS.

Gut microbiome

The microbiome consists of up to 1,000 different types of bacteria and of about 100 trillion cells. As such it has ten times as many cells and 150 times as many genes as the human genome. The microbiome co-evolves with its human host in a symbiotic relationship. The development of the gut microbiome as a finely tuned ecosystem depends on a number of factors: whether and which microorganisms a person absorbs from his/her mother's birth canal at the time of birth; whether a person is subject to antibodies; what food a person eats; infections; stress and genetic predisposition. Elderly individuals who are in poor health often have a lower diversity of microorganisms in their microbiome or inflammation-promoting manifestations.
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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #8 - 21.07.2016 - 20:43:52
 
Changes uncovered in the gut bacteria of patients with multiple sclerosis

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160712130221.htm

July 12, 2016
A connection between the bacteria living in the gut and immunological disorders such as multiple sclerosis have long been suspected, but for the first time, researchers have detected clear evidence of changes that tie the two together. Investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) have found that people with multiple sclerosis have different patterns of gut microorganisms than those of their healthy counterparts. In addition, patients receiving treatment for MS have different patterns than untreated patients. The new research supports recent studies linking immunological disorders to the gut microbiome and may have implications for pursuing new therapies for MS.

"Our findings raise the possibility that by affecting the gut microbiome, one could come up with treatments for MS -- treatments that affect the microbiome, and, in turn, the immune response," said Howard L. Weiner, MD, director of the Partners MS Center and co-director of the Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Disease at Brigham Women's Hospital, . "There are a number of ways that the microbiome could play a role in MS and this opens up a whole new world of looking at the disease in a way that it's never been looked at before."

Weiner and colleagues conducted their investigations using data and samples from subjects who are part of the CLIMB (Comprehensive Longitudinal Investigation of Multiple Sclerosis) study at Brigham and Women's Hospital. The team analyzed stool samples from 60 people with MS and 43 control subjects, performing gene sequencing to detect differences in the microbial communities of the subjects.

Samples from MS patients contained higher levels of certain bacterial species -- including Methanobrevibacter and Akkermansia -- and lower levels of others -- such as Butyricimonas -- when compared to healthy samples. Other studies have found that several of these microorganisms may drive inflammation or are associated with autoimmunity. Importantly, the team also found that microbial changes in the gut correlated with changes in the activity of genes that play a role in the immune system. The team also collected breath samples from subjects, finding that, as a result of increased levels of Methanobrevibacter, patients with MS had higher levels of methane in their breath samples.

The researchers also investigated the gut microbe communities of untreated MS patients, finding that MS disease-modifying therapy appeared to normalize the gut microbiomes of MS patients. The researchers note that further study will be required to determine the exact role that these microbes may be playing in the progression of disease and whether or not modifying the microbiome may be helpful in treating MS. They plan to continue to explore the connection between the gut and the immune system in a larger group of patients and follow changes over time to better understand disease progression and interventions.

"This work provides a window into how the gut can affect the immune system which can then affect the brain," said Weiner, who is also a professor of Neurology at Harvard Medical School. "Characterizing the gut microbiome in those with MS may provide new opportunities to diagnose MS and point us toward new interventions to help prevent disease development in those who are at risk."
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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #9 - 06.08.2016 - 16:21:58
 
These days fecal transplantation is no joke

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/07/160712142633.htm

July 12, 2016



Fecal transplants are increasingly being used as the treatment of last resort for certain infections in the human gut and have had remarkable success treating the nursing home and hospital-acquired scourge, Clostridium difficile colitis, an infectious diarrhea that often follows antibiotic treatment. There is also preliminary evidence that the transplantation of stool from healthy individuals can be effective in treating multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.

At the same time, there has been a major increase in animal experiments involving fecal material. In one study, for example, researchers found that fecal transplants from lean mice turned sterile mice into lean mice, while fecal transplants from fat mice turned sterile mice into fat mice.

"This research is just getting started. It is driven by the new paradigm of the microbiome which recognizes that every plant and animal species harbors a collection of microbes that have significant and previously unrecognized effects on their host health, evolution and behavior," said Seth Bordenstein, associate professor of biological sciences and pathology, microbiology, and immunology at Vanderbilt University.

In an article titled "Fecal Transplants: What is Being Transferred" published July 12 in the journal PLOS Biology, Bordenstein reviews the growing scientific literature on the subject.

"There is no doubt that poo can save lives," said Bordenstein. Take the case of the use of fecal transplants to treat Clostridium difficile infections. According to the literature, it has a 95 percent cure rate. "Right now fecal transplants are used as the treatment of last resort, but their effectiveness raises an important question: When will doctors start prescribing them, or some derivative, first?" Bordenstein asked.

It turns out fecal transplantation has a long history in Chinese medicine. An early-recorded application in humans was in the 4th century by a Chinese medical doctor named Ge Hong. In the 16th century, it was popular enough to get the nickname "yellow soup."

Interest among Western scientific circles was minimal until the year 2010, with fewer than 10 articles on the subject appearing per year in PubMed, an index of biomedical literature. Starting in 2011, however, the number began an exponential rise with more than 200 papers on fecal transplantation appearing in 2015, a trend that shows no sign of slacking.

So far most of the research has been focused on the role of the bacteria in donor's stool. Bacteria are the most abundant active agent in the material. However, they are not the only functional player in feces, Bordenstein cautioned. "Feces is a complex material that contains a variety of biological and chemical entities that may be causing or assisting the effects of these transplants."

Healthy human stool contains on average 100 billion bacteria per gram. But it also contains 100 million viruses and archaea per gram. (Archaea are an understudied domain of single-celled organisms that were classed as bacteria until the 1970's). In addition, there are about 10 million colonocytes (human epithelial cells that help protect the colon) and a million yeasts and other single-celled fungi per gram.

According to Bordenstein, focus on the bacterial component appears to make sense in some cases, such as the treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis, but in other cases, such as the possible treatment of multiple sclerosis, it is quite possible that the effects of fecal transplants may be influenced by, or possibly even caused by, their non-bacterial constituents. As a result, he calls for increased research designed to separate out the effects and interactions of each of these components.

"When scientists identify the specific cocktails that produce the positive outcomes, then they can synthesize or grow them and put them in a pill. That will go a long way to reducing the 'icky factor' that could slow public acceptance of this new form of treatment," said Bordenstein.
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Probiootithan on ihmisen suolistomikrobiotasta eristettyjä ja laboratoriossa kasvatettuja hyviä bakteereita.

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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #10 - 06.08.2016 - 16:51:55
 
HopeSprings kirjoitti on 06.08.2016 - 16:21:58:
Probiootithan on ihmisen suolistomikrobiotasta eristettyjä ja laboratoriossa kasvatettuja hyviä bakteereita.


Joo, mutta häipyvät heti, kun lopettaa niitä sisältävien jugurttien tms. syömisen, eli eivät pääse "normaalitietä" kovinkaan pitkälle...

T: Vesku
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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #11 - 24.02.2017 - 16:43:22
 
Imbalances in Brain Microbiota May Be Behind Demyelination in MS, Study Says

https://multiplesclerosisnewstoday.com/2016/12/08/brain-microbiota-imbalances-ma...
y-be-linked-to-demyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis

Alterations in microorganisms in the brains of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients could contribute to underlying disease mechanisms, including demyelination, according to researchers.

The study, “Brain microbiota disruption within inflammatory demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis,” was published in the journal Scientific Reports.

It is widely recognized that the balance of resident microorganisms (the microbiota) in different tissues is important to both health and disease. Imbalances in organ-specific microbiota are commonly associated with disease.
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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #12 - 24.02.2017 - 16:46:29
 
Gut microbes promote motor deficits in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/12/161201122159.htm

Gut microbes may play a critical role in the development of Parkinson's-like movement disorders in genetically predisposed mice, researchers report December 1 in Cell. Antibiotic treatment reduced motor deficits and molecular hallmarks of Parkinson's disease in a mouse model, whereas transplantation of gut microbes from patients with Parkinson's disease exacerbated symptoms in these mice. The findings could lead to new treatment strategies for the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the United States.

"We have discovered for the first time a biological link between the gut microbiome and Parkinson's disease. More generally, this research reveals that a neurodegenerative disease may have its origins in the gut, and not only in the brain as had been previously thought," says senior study author Sarkis Mazmanian of the California Institute of Technology. "The discovery that changes in the microbiome may be involved in Parkinson's disease is a paradigm shift and opens entirely new possibilities for treating patients."

Parkinson's disease affects an estimated one million people and 1% of the United States population over 60 years of age. The disease is caused by the accumulation of abnormally shaped α-synuclein proteins in neurons, leading to particularly toxic effects in dopamine-releasing cells located in brain regions that control movement. As a result, patients experience debilitating symptoms such as tremors, muscle stiffness, slowness of movement, and impaired gait. First-line therapies currently focus on increasing dopamine levels in the brain, but these treatments can cause serious side effects and often lose effectiveness over time.

To address the need for safer and more effective treatments, Mazmanian and first author Timothy Sampson of the California Institute of Technology turned to gut microbes as an intriguing possibility. Patients with Parkinson's disease have an altered gut microbiome, and gastrointestinal problems such as constipation often precede motor deficits by many years in these individuals. Moreover, gut microbes have been shown to influence neuronal development, cognitive abilities, anxiety, depression, and autism. However, experimental evidence supporting a role for gut microbes in neurodegenerative diseases has been lacking.

The researchers raised genetically modified mice with a Parkinson's-like disease either in normal, non-sterile cages or in a germ-free environment. Remarkably, mice raised in the germ-free cages displayed fewer motor deficits and reducedaccumulation of misfolded protein aggregates in brain regions involved in controlling movement. In fact, these mice showed almost normal performance on tasks such as traversing a beam, removing an adhesive from their nose, and climbing down a pole.

Antibiotic treatment had a similar effect as the germ-free environment on ameliorating motor symptoms in mice predisposed to Parkinson's-like disorders. By contrast, mice raised in the germ-free cages showed worse motor symptoms when they either were treated with microbial metabolites called short-chain fatty acids or received fecal transplants of gut microbes from patients with Parkinson's disease. Taken together, the results suggest that gut microbes exacerbate motor symptoms by creating an environment that could favor the accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates.

It is important to note that, in this study, gut microbes cooperate with a specific genetic factor to influence the risk for developing Parkinson's disease. The researchers used a specific genetic mouse model that recapitulates motor symptoms through α-synuclein accumulation, and genetically normal mice that were not predisposed to Parkinson's disease did not develop motor symptoms after receiving fecal transplants from patients. Other genetic and environmental factors, such as pesticide exposure, also play a role in the disease.

The findings suggest that probiotic or prebiotic therapies have the potential to alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, antibiotics or fecal microbe transplants are far from being viable therapies at this time. "Long-term, high-strength antibiotic use, like we utilized in this study, comes with significant risk to humans, such as defects in immune and metabolic function," Sampson cautions. "Gut bacteria provide immense physiological benefit, and we do not yet have the data to know which particular species are problematic or beneficial in Parkinson's disease."

It is therefore critical to identify which pathogenic microbes might contribute to a higher Parkinson's disease risk or to development of a more severe symptomatology -- a research direction the researchers are planning to take. They will also look for specific bacterial species that may protect patients against motor decline. In the end, the identification of microbial species or metabolites that are altered in Parkinson's disease may serve as disease biomarkers or even drug targets, and interventions that correct microbial imbalances may provide safe and effective treatments to slow or halt the progression of often debilitating motor symptoms.

"Much like any other drug discovery process, translating this innovative work from mice to humans will take many years," Mazmanian says. "But this is an important first step toward our long-term goal of leveraging the deep, mechanistic insights that we have uncovered for a gut-brain connection to help ease the medical, economic, and social burden of Parkinson's disease."
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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #13 - 24.02.2017 - 16:51:45
 
Digital microbes for munching yourself healthy

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161129084233.htm

November 29, 2016

Hundreds of different bacterial species live in the human gut, helping us to digest our food. The metabolic processes of these bacteria are not only tremendously important to our health -- they are also tremendously complex. A research team at the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) of the University of Luxembourg has taken an important step in modelling the complexity of the human gut's bacterial communities -- the microbiome -- on the computer. The researchers gathered all known data on the metabolism of 773 bacterial strains -- more than ever before. Working from this data, they developed a computer model for each bacterial strain. This collection, known as AGORA, can now be used on the computer to simulate metabolic processes taking place in the microbes and to investigate how they affect the metabolism of other microbes and that of the human host. The LCSB team publishes its results in the scientific journal Nature Biotechnology.

The bacterial species living in the human gut not only help us to digest our food, but also produce valuable vitamins for us and even affect the way we metabolise drugs. The metabolic processes of these bacteria are crucial to our health, and are highly complex: The bacteria are in constant contact with our gut cells, and the different organisms continually influence one another. Thus, they play as important a role in our health as they do in numerous diseases. Despite many advances in science, our knowledge of these microbes is still limited. To improve our understanding and to aid novel discoveries, the research team led by LCSB scientist Prof. Dr. Ines Thiele, head of the "Molecular Systems Physiology" group, has now created the most comprehensive collection of computational models for 773 different gut microbes, capturing their individual metabolisms, called AGORA. "AGORA is based on a new concept for the comparative reconstruction of bacterial metabolic models," says Ines Thiele: "It allows the analysis of a much greater number of bacterial strains than was ever possible before. With AGORA, and by including other datasets, we can systematically study the metabolic interactions within the gut microbiome and how these interactions are influenced by external factors, including the diet and host metabolism."

The first author of the study, Stefania Magnusdottir, is currently doing her PhD degree in Ines Thiele's group at the LCSB: "The basis for our paper was a thorough investigation of the literature on microbial metabolism," she explains. "We gathered known experimental and genomic data on the metabolism of 773 bacterial strains to refine and validate the computational models. Based on this, we characterised each microbe's metabolism and found that both their metabolic capabilities and our diet play important roles in how the microbes interact with each other. We can generate personalised microbiome models by integrating these computational models with metagenomic data, which can be obtained by sequencing the microbes present in stool samples of healthy and sick individuals."

"With our models, we can search, in a targeted manner, for metabolic pathways that are fundamentally important to the microbiome in the gut, and we can work out what could trigger diseases when these metabolic processes go wrong," says co-author Dr. Ronan Fleming, who leads the Systems Biochemistry group at the LCSB: "The AGORA models will now allow us to study the impact of host-microbiome interactions in specific diseases or to use them in the emerging field of personalised medicine."

Using AGORA to study the gut microbiome will involve close collaboration with researchers who are investigating the gut microbiome in the laboratory, including Prof. Dr Paul Wilmes, head of the LCSB Eco-Systems Biology group. His group has developed methods for studying gut bacteria under real-life conditions. "AGORA directs us to targeted bacterial metabolic processes to perform focused experiments, allowing precise and comprehensive modelling of processes within the gut microbes," Paul Wilmes asserts.

For Ines Thiele, the high degree of precision is not an end in itself: "We want to understand how the microbes modulate human metabolism when we modify our diet. This may give us clues as to how we may prevent, or even treat, diseases, for example by identifying dietary supplements that could modify the interactions within a diseased gut microbiome to imitate the metabolic functions of a healthy one."

The AGORA project has received support from the Luxembourg National Research Fund's (FNR) ATTRACT, CORE, Proof-of-Concept and AFR funding programmes as well as from the Advanced Computing program of the US Department of Energy, Offices of Advanced Scientific Computing Research and the Biological and Environmental Research.

The collection of predictive metabolic models is available to researchers via http://vmh.life.
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Re: Suolistobakteerit, myeliini ja aivotoiminta
Vastaus #14 - 12.05.2017 - 16:02:58
 
Intestinal bacteria alter gut and brain function, study shows

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/03/170301142503.htm

March 1, 2017
Research from McMaster University has found that bacteria in the gut impacts both intestinal and behavioural symptoms in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a finding which could lead to new microbiota-directed treatments.

The new study, published in Science Translational Medicine, was led by researchers from the Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute at McMaster, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Waterloo.

IBS is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in the world. It affects the large intestine and patients suffer from abdominal pain and altered bowel habits like diarrhea and constipation, which are often accompanied by chronic anxiety or depression. Current treatments aimed at improving symptoms have limited effectiveness because the underlying causes are unknown.

The goal of the study was to explore whether fecal microbiota from human IBS patients with diarrhea has the ability to influence gut and brain function in recipient mice. Using fecal transplants, researchers transferred microbiota from IBS patients with or without anxiety into germ-free mice. The mice went on to develop changes both in intestinal function and behavior reminiscent of the donor IBS patients, compared to mice that were transplanted with microbiota from healthy individuals.

The researchers found that aspects of the illness that were impacted through fecal transplants included gastrointestinal transit (the time it takes for food to leave the stomach and travel through the intestine); intestinal barrier dysfunction; low grade inflammation; and anxiety-like behaviour.

“This is a landmark study because it moves the field beyond a simple association, and towards evidence that changes in the microbiota impact both intestinal and behavioral responses in IBS,” said Giada De Palma, the study’s first author and research associate with the Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute.

“Our findings provide the basis for developing therapies aimed at the intestinal microbiota, and for finding biomarkers for the diagnosis of IBS,” said Premysl Bercik, the study’s senior author, associate professor of medicine at McMaster and a gastroenterologist with Hamilton Health Sciences.

The authors conclude that their findings raise the possibility that “microbiota-directed therapies, including pre- or probiotic treatment, may be beneficial in treating not only intestinal symptoms but also components of the behavioural manifestations of IBS.”

Interestingly, the authors noted that since the study showed that microbiota in the gut can influence the brain, it “adds to evidence suggesting that the intestinal microbiota may play some role in the spectrum of brain disorders ranging from mood or anxiety to other problems that may include autism, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.” However, they added that further work is required to better define the relationship in these conditions.
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